Ultimate Kratom Guide
Detailed Information about Strains, Extract, Dosage

What is Kratom? What is it Used for?

As a member of the coffee (Rubiaceae) family, kratom contains a series of alkaloids that provide unique benefits to the human body. These alkaloids are similar in structure to caffeine (indole and oxindole alkaloids) but have different effects on the body.  

The dosage and ratio of these alkaloids give each strain of kratom a unique set of effects.

The list of uses for kratom is long and widespread and includes ailments like pain, arthritis, diarrhea, overstimulation, coughing, insomnia, and chronic conditions like fibromyalgia, restless leg syndrome (RLS), and fibromyalgia.

Despite the differences in traditional uses from one tribe to the next, local indigenous cultures using kratom all agreed on one thing: the dose and strain choice matter because kratom acts like a stimulant in lower doses and a sedative in higher doses.

This means that certain conditions will benefit more from either a high or a low dose. Fatigue, for example, can be treated using the stimulating effects of low dose kratom, but isn’t suitable for those suffering from insomnia or anxiety.

In the modern world, kratom has become a popular medicinal plant for inducing relaxed states of mind, increasing focus and concentration, and treating pain and arthritis.

Origins of Kratom

The use of Kratom dates back many centuries. The first person to introduce kratom to the Western world was a man named Pieter Willem Korthals. Peter was a Dutch botanist in the early 19th century who served as the official botanist for the Dutch East India Service.

Although the origin of Kratom is unknown, this incredible plant was known to have flourished in Southeast Asia and various parts of Indochina.

Currently, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand are the main producers of the worlds kratom supply. Depending on the country of origin, different subspecies of kratom are generally grown.

Thailand and Indonesia are especially diverse in the types of kratom grown, which can change from one region to the next.

  • Maeng Da. This is one of the most popular strains of kratom available. It’s  thought to have originated in Thailand, however, most of it is now cultivated in Indonesia.
  • Borneo, Java, Sunda Isles and Sumatra. These are sub-regions of Indonesia. Each strain of Kratom leaf growing in these subregions posses different chemical profiles, qualities, and potency. This makes strains grown in these regions very diverse in their effect profiles.  

While each country or region grows the same plant, every region creates a distinct variety of Kratom. The different climate, weather, sun exposure and soil conditions of each region provides a unique ecosystem for Kratom to develop.

Read further to learn the differences between the strains and types of Kratom leaves.

Kratom Effects

There are many different strains of kratom available as a result of selective breeding and genetic engineering of kratom crops. The effects produced by Kratom leaf varies depending on the level and ratio of the different alkaloids contained in the plant. These alkaloids can be very different from one strain to the next.

Experts have categorized Kratom strains into three levels – Moderate, Sedating and Stimulating, relative to their overall effects.

On top of differing strains, each Kratom plant may also vary according to its growing conditions and leaf vein colors. This means that each categorization of a specific strain is not set in stone. Strains do however provide some guidelines for what the average sample will deliver in terms of its effects.

  • Stimulating Strains

Stimulating strains are most desired for people complaining of fatigue or depression. This includes those looking to improve focus and concentration for long hours.

They‘re useful for students trying to cram for exams as well as business professionals working on large projects extending into all hours of the night.

The alkaloids contained in kratom that give its stimulating properties also tend to increase sexual function. For this reason kratom is commonly used as an aphrodisiac to improve sexual desire and stamina.

Mood is also elevated with stimulating varieties of kratom. These strains are reported to make people more friendly, talkative and sociable.

The stimulant effect of kratom relies on an activation of the adrenergic receptors of the body. This competes with kratoms ability to stimulate the opioid receptors which are responsible for the sedating effect.

A strain known to be more stimulating has a higher affinity for these adrenergic receptors, producing mild fight or flight reactions and increases energy levels throughout the body.

  • Sedating Strains

In general, sedating strains contain less stimulating alkaloids, mainly Mitragynine, which is present in the Thai and Maeng Da strains. These strains are generally higher in a related alkaloid known as 7-Hydroxymitragynine. This alkaloid is effective for pain relief and managing opiate withdrawal symptoms. Sedating strains have long been used for chronic pain and mood enhancement.

Sedating kratom strains have a higher affinity for the opioid receptors and 5 HTP (serotonin) receptors. This is why they tend to have stronger sedative and mood enhancing effects in the body. These strains will produce feelings of euphoria and relaxation and are far more useful for inhibiting the transmission of pain.

  • Moderate Strains

Many users choose moderate strains as their go-to for a more well-rounded effect. These strains are often considered to be smoother in their effects, yet remain useful for both enhancing energy levels and promoting relaxation. These strains are very popular, consisting of a much bigger portion of the Kratom market across the globe.

While Moderate strains are not as active in producing instant effects, they can deliver a number of effects more gently and offer a safe middle ground for new kratom users to explore.

Benefits of Kratom

Kratom comes with a long list of benefits, some distinct to certain strains, others more widespread throughout the entire species.

Here are the most significant therapeutic benefits of Kratom:

  • Reduces the sensation of pain
  • Relieves opiate withdrawal symptoms
  • Boosts energy levels
  • Fights depression
  • Enhances the mood
  • Anti-malarial
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Regulates blood sugar levels
  • Boosts immune function
  • Increases sexual desire

Kratom is also abundant in antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals, providing additional health benefits from regular consumption.

1. Kratom for Pain Relief

Kratoms analgesic effects are beneficial for those suffering both acute and chronic pain. This is a result of kratoms ability to interact with the opiate receptors in the body that work to regulate the transmission of pain.

Many people have switched from using conventional pain-killing medications to kratom for its comparable effects and higher level of safety associated with its use.

Kratom can be used as an effective pain relief for the following conditions:

  • Migraine or intense headache
  • Minor injuries such as fractures and burns
  • Back pain
  • Arthritis
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Scoliosis
  • Neck strain or whiplash
  • Abdominal pain
  • Chest pain
  • Muscle pain

How Kratom Reduces Pain

There are two main alkaloids in the kratom plant that have specific pain relieving properties, Mitragynine and 7-Hydroxymitragynine.

These alkaloids are capable of modulating the delta opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord to mitigate the body’s sensation of pain.

As a pain receptor moves pain from the source (such as a muscle or joint) to the brain it must first pass through the spinal cord. This is where the opioid receptors act as a faucet. They allow only as much pain as deemed appropriate through to the brain to receive.

By stimulating these receptors, we can effectively turn down the faucet on pain transmission to the brain, therefore reducing the sensation of this discomfort overall.

It’s necessary to use Kratom strains that contain the highest amount of these two alkaloids if we want to have the most effect on these opioid receptors.

The potency of alkaloids present in the leaves varies depending on the strain and type of Kratom.

Some strains that are well-known to be beneficial towards pain management include:

  • Indo
  • Maeng Da
  • Bali
  • Borneo

Tip: When choosing kratom strains for pain management, a good rule of thumb is to look for a species with red vein color as these tend to be highest in these two alkaloids. The dose for pain management is usually from Moderate to High.

2. Kratom for Opiate Withdrawal

As discussed above, Kratom is effective for pain relief which works through the opioid system located in the spinal cord and brain. For this reason kratom is also useful for conditions involving opiate withdrawal symptoms.

The effects of withdrawal are the result of an inability to naturally stimulate the opioid receptors. Kratom is able to stimulate these receptors in a similar manner to opiate drugs, but with more gentle effects. This allows an opiate user to wean themselves off the pharmaceutical drugs using kratom as a more gentle opiate agonist over time.  

The best strains for reducing the symptoms of opiate withdrawal include:

  • Indo
  • Maeng Da
  • Bali
  • Borneo

Tip: Similar to pain reducing strains, look for kratom with red leaf veins and aim for moderate to higher doses to achieve the desired effect.

3. Kratom For Energy

Manual laborers in Southeast Asia have been using kratom to reduce fatigue and improve their productivity at work for decades. It owes this ability to the alkaloids in its leaves that work through adrenergic receptors. These receptors regulate our energy levels throughout the day.

Adrenergic receptors are responsible for giving us a boost of energy when we’re surprised or in danger as part of our fight or flight response, as well as contributing to our day-to-day energy regulation.

Kratom increases in blood flow to the brain and peripheral tissues to bring freshly oxygenated blood throughout the body. It increases heart rate and promotes more effective blood perfusion into the microcapillaries that make up the majority of our blood vessels. Through these mechanisms kratom is able to produce a boost in energy levels that can last several hours.

White Vein strains are often labeled as ‘get up and go’ Kratom as it provides a unique boost of energy to other varieties. These strains are used commonly as a tea for an immediate rush in energy levels. Many people claim to overcome insomnia using white vein Kratom.

Aside from White Vein Kratom, other suggested strains for boosting energy include:

  • Thai
  • Maeng Da

4. Kratom for Boosting The Immune System

Herbs have long been used to boost the immune system and help us defend against conditions like cold and flu. One of the main traditional uses of kratom was for infections due to its variety of immune-enhancing and antimicrobial effects.

Some of the compounds in kratom are directly antimicrobial, killing infectious organisms in our body. Other compounds in kratom work indirectly through our innate immune response, upregulating the production of immune cells.

Additionally, kratom is a rich source of antioxidants that work to protect the body from damage and inflammation that provide a home for opportunistic organisms like influenza and E. coli.

Alkaloids present in Kratom with documented immunomodulatory properties include:

  • Isomitraphylline
  • Mitraphylline
  • Isopteropodine
  • Isorhynchophylline

Many people take kratom at the early stages of illness to boost their immune system and reduce the severity and duration of infections like cold/flu.

Some recommended kratom strains to boost immunity include:

  • Borneo
  • Malay

* Tip: When choosing kratom strains of immunity, the best vein color to look for is Green and the recommended dose is Low to Moderate.

5. Kratom for Euphoria

One of the most desired qualities of kratom is its potent anxiolytic and euphoric effects. It soothes the mind, balances mood, and promotes feelings of excitement and motivation.

The alkaloids in kratom have mild sedative actions, which has made it a popular herb for promoting relaxed and meditative states. Others use it to help unwind after particularly stressful events.

The anxiolytic qualities of kratom make it popular for those suffering anxiety or depression. It’s important to remember that this is highly strain-dependent as some strains are considered to be stimulating rather than sedative. The stimulating strains will not be useful for this purpose and should be avoided in these cases.

Strains most effective for reducing depressive symptoms and producing euphoria are:

  • Thai
  • Maeng Da
  • Malay

Tip: When choosing kratom for euphoric effects, look for strains with Green and White veins. This can vary greatly, however, and it is best to talk to someone experienced with kratom if this is the reason for taking this herb.

6. Kratom As A Nootropic

Nootropics are becoming more and more popular as time goes on and new research is released on these substances.

Nootropics come as both a natural supplement, such as kratom or other herbs, as well as synthetic compounds produced in a laboratory.

Kratom offers nootropic benefit with minimal side effects and offers more widespread cognitive benefit than a single synthetic nootropic. This is because there are a number of compounds in kratom, each with their own unique effects.

These compounds work together to produce a more well-rounded benefit towards health and cognition than a single chemical.

Kratoms nootropic effects include:

  • Better concentration
  • Faster memory recall
  • Improvements in mood and motivation
  • Antioxidant protection from neurodegenerative conditions
  • Better stress management

As with other uses for kratom, the nootropic value of one strain to the next can change dramatically. This makes it important to be strain-specific when choosing kratom to use as a nootropic.

Strains commonly used for cognitive support include:

  • Thai (for vigor, focus and memory enhancement)
  • Maeng Da (for vigor, focus and memory enhancement)
  • Malay (for memory and focus)

Tip: The ideal vein colors for cognitive support are Green and White and the recommended dosage is Low to Moderate.

Side Effects of Kratom

All substances have the potential for side effects, whether they are natural or synthetic. Kratom is no different but is known to have fewer side effects than most of the other substances in its class.

Whenever taking a herb or supplement it’s important to learn and understand any of the potential side effects and how they should deal with them.

The side effects of kratom may include:

  • Nausea
  • Dizziness
  • Excessive sweating
  • Itchiness
  • Blushing
  • Jitters, tremors
  • Constricted pupils

Most of these side effects are in relation to the ability for kratom alkaloids to bind to the opioid receptors. These receptors control a wide range of functions in the human body, and as such can result in some side effects that may seem unrelated.

If any of these side effects are experienced, it’s important to stop taking anymore kratom during that session and reduce the dose the next time you want to try it.

These side effects will usually disappear between 2-3 hours later after the alkaloids have been metabolized and removed from the body.

Kratom Effects Based on Length of Usage

  • Short-Term Effects of Kratom

The compounds contained in kratom leaves can deliver varying results even at different doses. There are many different factors that can influence how kratom affects the body.

Some of the major factors affecting kratoms effects include:

  • Dosage
  • Body weight
  • Age
  • Tolerance

Low Dose Kratom

Generally speaking, the lower end of a kratom dose (1-5 g) tends to produce more stimulating effects. This dose is most common for those looking to boost energy and use kratom as a nootropic during work or study.

The effect can begin within 10 minutes and may last up to several hours. Most Kratom users report the effects of smaller dose kratom as “pleasant and productive”.

Some of the most common stimulating effects are:

  • Increased sexual desire
  • Improved social interaction
  • More energy
  • Alertness
  • More balanced appetite
  • Enhanced cognitive performance

Moderate Dose Kratom

Increasing the dose to moderate (5 – 15 grams) will generate effects more similar to opiates. These effects may last for several hours and are considered milder than other opiate sources.

Common effects of moderate dosages include:

  • Pain relief
  • Calming effects
  • Better management of opiate withdrawal symptoms
  • Cough management
  • Better focus

High Dose Kratom

Taking higher dose range (15+ grams) may lead to severe sedation and may even cause loss of consciousness. These doses are not recommended.

Long-Term Effects of Kratom

There have not been significant negative effects reported from taking kratom long term in the scientific literature. Anecdotal evidence from traditional cultures using the herb also suggest no serious long-term risk is involved with consuming this herb.

Some users have reported the following long-term effects:

  • Skin darkening
  • Weight loss
  • Paranoia
  • Anxiety

Kratom Strains

Kratom Strain Based on Region

1. Borneo Kratom.

This is one of the strongest sedating strains available.

The highly sedative nature makes of Borneo kratom make it excellent for pain relief and stress or anxiety. Red Vein Borneo leaf is considered to be especially useful for this.

Compared to similar strains, Borneo strains have a much lower incidence of side effects based on anecdotal reports. Any experienced kratom user will be able to quickly identify the difference with a true Borneo strain.

Stimulation: 1 – 2/10

Pain Relief: 8 – 10/10

Mood: 8 – 10/10

2. Bali Kratom.

Bali kratom has large leaves and grows faster than most other strains. This makes the cost for Bali kratom more affordable than most kratom.

Correct dosing may be a challenge for some Bali strains. This is because they’re known for having a low ‘wobble’ threshold. This is a common side effect involving blurry vision, dizziness, and nausea.

Many users combine Bali kratom with other strains to negate these effects.

Additionally, finding the right dose by titrating Bali kratom can effectively avoid this side effect.

Stimulation: 2 – 4/10

Pain Relief: 7 – 9.5/10

Mood: 7 – 9.5/10

3. Indo Kratom.

Indo kratom has a low side effect profile and is excellent for pain relief. It’s further sub-grouped into Sumatra and Riau (Borneo is another sub-category of Indo).

Many users report slow onset of effect from different types of Indo Kratom. This is believed to be due to the extra time it takes to break down the cell walls of these strains.

Stimulation: 2 – 3/10

Pain Relief: 8 – 10/10

Mood: 8 – 10/10

4. Thai Kratom.

Popular for its potent energizing effects, the alkaloid profile of Thai Kratom can result in unpredictable effects depending on the user. For this reason, Thai kratom is not generally recommended for inexperienced users.

Despite the unpredictable nature of Thai kratom, it has a lot of devoted users compared to other varieties of Kratom.

The analgesic effect of Thai kratom can vary greatly, but Red Vein Thai (RVT) offers the most effective analgesic action.

The White and Green Vein Thais are better for stimulation and depression.

Stimulation: 8 – 9.5/10

Pain Relief: 4 – 8/10

Mood: 6 – 9/10

5. Maeng Da Kratom.

Maeng Da is known for being one of the most powerful pain-killing varieties available.

Unlike most other pain-killing kratom strains, Maeng Da has more of a stimulating effect than sedative. This makes it excellent for those looking for some pain relief but doesn’t want to sacrifice energy levels.

Stimulation: 7 – 8.5/10

Pain Relief: 7.5 – 10/10

Mood: 7.5 – 10/10

7. Green Malaysian Kratom.

This strain is known for having a long-lasting effect and is a popular choice for those looking to receive the nootropic benefits from their kratom. The long-lasting effect is believed to be the result of thicker cell walls and more even alkaloid level.

This strain of kratom is used to promote focus and concentration, improve memory, and provides a mild stimulating effect on the mind to give the mind an extra boost to power through a tough project.

Stimulation: 4 -6/10

Pain Relief: 6 – 8/10

Mood: 7 – 8.5/10

Kratom Strains by Vein Color

One of the main identifiers of kratom is the vein color. These different colors indicate different chemical compositions in the leaves and provide hints about what its effects are likely to be.

The three vein color types are White, Green and Red. Similar to the different effects from strain to strain, different vein colors of kratom can deliver very different effects.

1. Red Vein Kratom.

This vein color type is good for producing fast-acting sedation with pain relieving and stress/anxiety reducing effects. This is because red vein kratom tends to be rich in 7-Hydroxymitragynine alkaloids compared to other vein color types.

Most Kratom users prefer to use the Red Vein type regardless of its place of origin.

Of the red veined varieties, the most popular is Red Thai. This strain is considered to be one of the most balanced strains available. It offers pain relief and improves energy levels with a great deal of potency for both.

Pain Relief: 9.5/10

Vigor: 3.5/10

2. Green Vein Kratom.

This Vein type is known for providing a middle ground in terms of effects. This is useful for new users and those who want the best of both worlds in terms of the red vein and white vein effect profiles.

Green vein strains tend to have medium potency and have both stimulating and sedating qualities depending on the dose. These phenotypes are useful for pain and can be used as a nootropic as well.

Pain Relief: 6/10

Vigor: 5/10

3. White Vein Kratom.

The white vein phenotypes have a lower concentration of the alkaloid 7-Hydroxymitragynine. This gives is more useful as a nootropic as it can promote alertness and concentration better than red or green vein kratom.

White vein kratom makes a good alternative to coffee or tea because its effects tend to be more subtle, long-lasting, and offers many of the same benefits of these common stimulants.

A morning cup of white vein kratom promotes focus and alertness and gives a good kick to start the day.

Pain Relief: 4/10

Vigor: 9.5/10

Kratom Types / Varieties

1. Kratom Powder

Traditional methods of consuming kratom involve chewing the raw leaves for a few minutes to break down the cell membranes before swallowing. Dried leaves were also consumed but are much tougher on the teeth and gums. Eventually, people began drying and powdering the leaves to make them more palatable.

There are many ways to use Kratom powder. It can be ingested directly, encapsulated, or mixed with liquids. Many users combine kratom powder with water, juice, or milk. Chocolate milk is a great method of consuming kratom powder because it helps mask the bitter flavor.

Some people use their kratom powder as a tea, which can be achieved by filling tea bags with their kratom powder of choice. The tea is then strained and consumed. This is one of the most common ways of consuming kratom powder because it’s far more palatable than drinking liquids with kratom powder directly in it. Honey or other sweeteners can be added to improve the taste.

2. Kratom Capsules

Capsules are a more modern way of consuming kratom powder. The capsules allow the user to know exactly how much kratom they’re taking and eliminates the chances of tasting the bitter leaves.

This is a common method of taking other herbs as well and is well tested throughout the world. Capsules come in standard sizes, allowing you to be more confident in the dosage you’re taking without having to measure it on a scale before each dose.

Encapsulated kratom comes at a premium, so many users choose to fill their own capsules using powdered kratom leaf and a DIY capsule machine. The process is simple but tedious and can be done at home.

3. Kratom Extracts

Concentrated extracts of the active constituents are also available. These extracts are far more potent than the raw leaves but aren’t as well rounded in their effects.

These extracts are made to address specific conditions like chronic pain, depression, or insomnia more effectively. Extracts aren’t as commonly used recreationally due to their increased potency.

Kratom extracts can be dangerous if used incorrectly so always be sure to use caution when taking concentrated extracts. This is true for any herb or substance.

There are two basic types of kratom extract available:

A. Water-based Kratom extracts.

Water-based kratom extracts are the most common. They’re made by dissolving the kratom leaf powder into water before being strained and evaporated. The chemicals within the kratom leaves are extracted into the water and left behind after evaporation. This process effectively removes the fibers and unwanted plant materials behind, leaving only the active chemical constituents.

The main advantage of producing this extract is that it increases the alkaloid content per weight. This means a much smaller amount of the powder is needed to produce the same effects. With raw leaf powder, 5-10 grams is needed to produce the same effects as 1-2 grams of extract.

Kratom extract produces a better stimulating effect than the plain leaf with fewer side effects compared to resin extracts or other enhanced extracts. Many experienced kratom users combine water extracts with the plain leaves to enhance the overall potency.

Water-based extracts lack some potency towards pain relief compared to resin extracts. This is thought to be due to the fact that the main pain-relieving alkaloids are not water soluble, and thus remain in the plant material that has been discarded during the production of the extract.

B. Kratom resin extract.

Kratom resin is made by using both a polar and nonpolar solvent together to strip the active constituents from the kratom leaves. The main solvents used for this process are water and ethanol.

In a similar technique to the water extraction method, the dried, powdered kratom leaf is soaked in the solvent to dissolve the chemicals contained in the leaves. Once sufficiently dissolved, the liquid is strained to remove unwanted plant material. The remaining, brownish liquid is then left out to allow the solvent to evaporate, leaving behind a sticky resinous substance.

This process allows for a greater range of constituents to remain in the extract, providing more well-rounded benefits to simple water extraction. This also allows for effective long-term storage of the kratom and smaller effective doses.

Kratom resin extract is more expensive than water extracts or raw leaves but offers significantly more potency per gram. Additionally, the possibility of side effects with this concentrated extract is much higher, and therefore careful dosing needs to be observed.

4. Kratom Tincture.

Kratom tincture is similar to concentrated extracts but remains in the liquid format that is produced before being evaporated and concentrated. Tinctures often involve the addition of citric acid to allow for more thorough breakdown of the plant material. The goal is to have as many of the leaves naturally occurring components to remain in the liquid to achieve more rounded effects.

The main advantage with Kratom tinctures is added convenience and a longer shelf life. The ethanol content of the tincture also improves absorption times in the gastrointestinal tract, allowing the effects of the kratom to begin faster than traditional methods of consumption.

Kratom Alkaloids and Active Constituents

As discussed above, each Kratom strain and vein color will produce different effects on the body. This is due to the changes in the ratio between the active alkaloids (and other components) found within the leaves.

Below is a list of some of the known alkaloids present in Kratom leaves, including comprehensive details on their concentration, characteristics and their relative content (percentage of total alkaloid weight).

1. Mitragynine

Mitragynine acts as a mediator of pain. It’s an active opioid receptor agonist, which means it is able to bind directly to the opioid receptors found in the spinal cord and brain.

Through this opioid receptor binding activity, mitragynine is able to exhibit antitussive (anti coughing), anti-diarrheal, sedative, and analgesic (pain relieving) qualities. Mitragynine also provides some mild adrenergic qualities, giving it mild stimulating effects as well.

Concentration of total chemical composition: 45 – 75%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

2. 7-Hydroxymitragynine

7-Hydroxymitragynine is the main analgesic alkaloid. It’s also an effective antidiarrheal, sedative, and antitussive.

Concentration of total chemical composition: Less than 1.5 – 2.5%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

3. Speciogynine

Speciogynine is an active smooth muscle relaxant, helping to support relaxation and reduce the negative effects stress has on the body. This is especially useful for muscle tension and nervous anxiety.

Concentration of total chemical composition: 6.5 – 7.5%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

4. Isomitraphylline

This is the main immune system stimulant found in kratom.

Concentration of total alkaloid composition: Less than 1%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

5. Isomitrafoline

Isomitrafoline is another useful immune system stimulant found in kratom leaves with a similar structure to Isomitraphylline.

Concentration of total chemical composition: Less than 1%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

6. Epicatechin

This compound is a flavonoid also found in tea (Camellia sinensis), as well as the chocolate plant (Theobroma cacao). It exhibits anti-leukemic, anti-mutagenic, anti-viral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic qualities.

Concentration of total chemical composition: Less than 1%

Chemical Class: Flavonoid

7. Corynantheidine

This alkaloid is a mild opioid receptor agonist. It’s much less potent to other alkaloids found in kratom like mitragynine.

Concentration of total chemical composition: Less than 1%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

8. Isorhynchophylline

Isorhynchophylline is an alkaloid also found in the medicinal plant species Uncaria rhynchophylla. It’s been shown to be neuroprotective for conditions like Parkinson’s disease as well as offering some immune system support.

Concentration of total chemical composition: Less than 1%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

9. Isopteropodine

Isopteropodine is a mild immunostimulant and 5-HTP modulator. The ability to interact with serotonin receptors (5-HTP) allows it to support mood and improve focus and concentration.

Concentration of total chemical composition: Less than 1%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

10. 9-Hydroxycorynantheidine

This alkaloid serves as an auxiliary analgesic painkiller. Along with 7-Hydroxymitragynine it helps amplify the pain relieving effects.

Concentration of total chemical composition: Highly variable.

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

11. Ciliaphylline

A mild opioid receptor agonist useful for inhibiting coughs (antitussive) and reducing diarrhea. It is also a mild analgesic and sedative.

Concentration of total chemical composition: Less than 1%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

12. Mitraphylline

Mitraphylline is a smooth muscle relaxant and exhibits antihypertensive, antiamnesic, vasodilating, and antileukemic qualities. It’s also provides immunomodulating effects to boost innate immunity.

Concentration of total chemical composition: Less than 1%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

13. Ajmalicine

Ajmalicine is also known as δ-yohimbine. It’s used as an antihypertensive medication in synthetic and concentrated extract formats.

Additionally, ajmalicine exhibits cerebro-vasodilating, antiaggregant, anticonvulsant and antiadrenergic qualities.

Concentration of total chemical composition: Less than 1%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

14. Corynoxine A

Corynoxine A modulates dopamine levels in the brain and provides neuroprotective effects against conditions such as Parkinson’s disease.

Concentration of total chemical composition: Less than 1%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

15. Rhynchophylline

Rhynchophylline exhibits potent antihypertensive, antiinflammatory and vasodilating qualities.

Concentration of total chemical composition: Less than 1%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

16. Corynoxine B

Corynoxine B serves as a dopamine Stabilizer within the brain and helps amplify the effects of Corynoxine A.

Concentration of total chemical composition: Less than 1%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

17. Speciophylline

Speciophylline is an immunomodulator useful for inhibiting chronic immune conditions like leukemia and chronic infection.

Concentration of total chemical composition: Less than 1%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

18. Speciociliatine

Speciociliatine is structurally related to mitragynine and serves as a mild-moderate opioid receptor agonist. This makes it useful as an antitussive, analgesic, and sedative.  

Concentration of total chemical composition: Less than 1%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

19. Tetrahydroalstonine

Tetrahydroalstonine is a blood glucose stabiliser and of mild antiadrenergic qualities. This is useful for improving energy levels throughout the day, and reduces the negative effects of stress and anxiety.

Concentration of total chemical composition: Less than 1%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

20. Mitrafoline

Mitrafoline is an oxindole alkaloid similar to mitragynine. It serves as a vasodilator, antihypertensive, muscle relaxant, antiamnesic, and anti-leukemic.

Concentration of total chemical composition: Less than 1%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

21. Akuammigine

Akuammigine is an indole alkaloid abundant in another medicinal plant species known as Picralima nitida with well-known pain-relieving qualities. This alkaloid acts as a potent opioid receptor agonist.

Concentration of total chemical composition: Less than 1%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

22. Speciofoline

Speciofoline is a mild opioid receptor agonist useful for relieving coughs and chronic pain.

Concentration of total chemical composition: Less than 1%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

23. Stipulatine

This oxindole alkaloid is also known as rotundifoline. It’s a mild-moderate opioid receptor agonist.

Concentration of total chemical composition: Less than 1%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

24. Mitraversine

More research is needed to determine the specific effects of this alkaloid.

Concentration of total chemical composition: Less than 1%

Chemical Class: Alkaloid

NOTE: The figures of concentration percentages are based on mean derivative research data and are not meant to represent absolute information in all samples.

There has been a number of experts that have spent extensive research hours and resources investigating and interpreting the chemical compositions and medicinal attributes of Mitragyna Speciosa. Some of the most noteable include Shellard EJ, MD., Takayama H., Lee CM, Becket AH, Raymond Hamet and Philipson JD.  All of these researchers have noted the high variability of effects produced from different kratom strains and phenotypes.

The reason is that each vein color type or strain contains a unique balance of alkaloid, hence the kind of efficacy and potency of their medicinal traits also vary. For instance, the Thai Kratom contains a higher amount of Mitragynine alkaloid that it can provide effective pain-relieving effects at a varied level of potency and responsiveness. On one hand, the Malaysian strain possesses a greater quantity of 7-hydroxymitragynine, which also allows it to deliver a unique pain-relieving effect.